Dative case express indirect object in the sentence. Dative signifies that someone or something is affected by the action or state expressed by the verb in a sentence.
If a verb has two objects the second is usually in Dative case.
Declination for nouns in dative case are:
|Masc. gen. sing.||Adj. -om/em||Noun –u|
|Masc.gen.pl.||Adj. -im||Noun -ima|
|Fem. gend. sing.||Adj. -oj||Noun -i|
|Fem. gen. pl.||Adj. -im||Noun -ama or -ima|
|Neuter gen. sing||Adj. -om /em||Noun –u|
|Neuter gen. pl.||Adj. -im||Noun -ima|
Dative case prepositions:
|Nasuprot||Opposite, Across from|
|Unatoč||In spite of|
Dative Case pronouns:
|Meni (mi) /To me||Nama (nam) / To us|
|Tebi (ti) / To you||Vama (vam)/ To you|
Njima (im) / To them
|Njemu (mu) /To him|
Njoj (joj) / To her
Njemu (mu) / To it
Dative Case Interrogative Pronouns:
Kome/ To Whom
Čemu / To What
Verbs and nouns that require Dative Case;
- Pomagati (imp) Pomoći (p) / To help
- Pristup / Access
- Obraćati se (imp), Obratiti se (p) / To address
- Reći or Kazati / To say
- Nadati se / To hope
- Radovati se (conj. Radujem) / To look forward to
- Žaliti se / To complain
- Činiti se / To seem
- Dostupnost/ Availability
Example of Dative Case with and without prepositions:
- Pružio mi je ruku / He extended his arm to me ( To me or mi is dative case).
- Ona mu je dala odgovor. / She answered him or She gave him an answer.
- Samo nam je još to trebalo. / We only needed that.
- Odlično ti je odijelo / That is an excellent suit.
- Kupila nam je sladoled. / She bought an ice cream for us / to us.
Talking about age in Dative case:
We can express age with the verb (to have) imati or we can use possessive dative. Talking about age we use navršiti or napuniti which express that someone reaches a particular milestone in years. Also we will use godište, which refers to year of someone’s birth. Godište is modified by the ordinal number of one’s year of birth and is used in the nominative case.
- Koliko imaš godina? / How old are you? (not in dative, basic form)
- Koliko ti je godina? / How old are you? (in dative case)
- Koje si godište? /What year were you born? not in Dat.
- Ja sam 86-to godište. / I was born (or I am from 1986’s).
- On je 80-to godište / He is born in the 1980.
- Sutra navršavam 32 godine. / Tomorrow I will complete (i am going to be ) 32.