Instrumental Case / Sa kim, Sa čim?

Instrumental case express the means or instrument through which the action is completed. In English language equivalent of Instrumental case would be by, with, through. We use instrumental case when we talk about: spatial relationships, tool, manner, transport, body parts, intervals, duration, day or night.

Declensions for nouns and adjective in instrumental case are:

Masc. singularAdj. -imNoun -om/em
Masc. pluralAdj. -imNoun -ima
Feminine sing.Adj. -omNoun -om, i, ju, lju, šću
Fem. pl.Adj, -imNoun -ama, -ima
Neuter sing.Adj. -imNoun -om, -em
Neuter pl. Adj. -imNoun -ima

note: for feminine nouns ending in consonant in Instrumental we will add -ju.

  • Umjetnost/ Art – Umjetnošću
  • Ljubav / Love – Ljubavju
  • Riječ/Word – Rječju
  • Pamet/Smart, Wisdom – Pameću

Some of Instrumental case prepositions:

S(a)With
MeđuBetween
NadAbove
PodBelow
PredIn front of
ZaBehind

Instrumental Case pronouns:

Sa mnom / With meSa nama/ With us
Sa tobom / With youSa Vama / With you pl. or formal
Sa njima / With them
Sa njim/ With him
Sa njom/ With her
Sa njim/ With it

Instrumental Case Interrogative Pronouns:

Sa kim, Sa čime? / With whome or with what?

Examples of Instrumental without prepositions:

  • Ko se može kupati hladnom vodom?/ Who can bath in a cold water? ( express tool).
  • Obično plačamo gotovinom / We usually pay by cash (by cash — manner by which we do something).
  • Otvoreno 24 sata / Open 24 hours ( express intervals )
  • Već duže vrijeme nije pao snijeg / For quite some time it hasn’t snowed (express duraion).

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