Passive voice

Participles are adjectives formed form verbal stems and they obey all rules of an adjective. The active participle is formed from a compound verbal tense or predicate in the sentence. The active participles are formed of verbs of both aspectual pairs where as passive participles use strictly perfective, transitive verbs.

Passive voice formation:

I. Suffixes (n, na, or no) are added to the verbs whose stems end on -a and their infinitive ends in -ati. Example:

PisatiPisan
PozvatiPozvan
DogovoritiDogovoren
ČestitatiČestitan
DokazatiDokazan

II. Suffixes (en, ena, eno) are added to the present tense of the -sti or -ći verbs or verbs that end on -iti which are preceeded by; ć,č,j, lj, nj, dž, đ, d, r, š,ž, and št. Example;

PojestiPojeden
PećiPečen
DogovoritiDogovoren
SjećiSječen
RiješitiRiješen

III. Suffixes (jen, jena, jeno) added to the present tense stem of the rest of the iti and jeti verbs. Example:

ObjavitiObjavljen
NositiNošen
ZaboravitiZaboravljen
SpasitiSpašen
ZabranitiZabranjen

IV. Suffixes (t, ta, to) added to the verbs whose infinitive stem ends on nu, e, long a or r. Example:

UzetiUzet
ProkletiProklet
SklonutiSklonut
UpoznatiUpoznat
SpomenutiSpomenut

V. Suffixes (ven, vena, veno) are added when creating past participle of a very small number of verbs that end on -i. Example:

SakritiSakriven
OtkritiOtkriven
DobitiDobiven, Dobijen
SašitiSašiven
PokritiPokriven

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