Pisati (imp) + Accusative Case
Pisati (imp) + Accusative Case
Participles are adjectives formed form verbal stems and they obey all rules of an adjective. The active participle is formed from a compound verbal tense or predicate in the sentence. The active participles are formed of verbs of both aspectual pairs where as passive participles use strictly perfective, transitive verbs.
Passive voice formation:
I. Suffixes (n, na, or no) are added to the verbs whose stems end on -a and their infinitive ends in -ati. Example:
II. Suffixes (en, ena, eno) are added to the present tense of the -sti or -ći verbs or verbs that end on -iti which are preceeded by; ć,č,j, lj, nj, dž, đ, d, r, š,ž, and št. Example;
III. Suffixes (jen, jena, jeno) added to the present tense stem of the rest of the iti and jeti verbs. Example:
IV. Suffixes (t, ta, to) added to the verbs whose infinitive stem ends on nu, e, long a or r. Example:
V. Suffixes (ven, vena, veno) are added when creating past participle of a very small number of verbs that end on -i. Example:
In English, conditional sentences are easily recognizable. On contrary, Bosnian conditional sentences are not only distinguishable by the verb but also the choice of conjunction used. The real conditional sentences refer to a full expectation of completion of some action, potential refers to some possibility but there is uncertainty, and the third is referring to no real certainty that the result will happen – it is hypothetical. The conditional (abbreviation: cond.) is constructed like the past tense, but instead of säm, si, a ‘conditional’ verb is used; it’s a special verb with the following form + participle:
|1st per.||Ne bih||Ne bismo|
|2nd per.||Ne bi||Ne biste|
|3rd per.||Ne bi||Ne bi|
Example of conditional mood :
A sentence involving a real condition articulates a straightforwards casual connection, usually in the form of prediction. Whether the condition stated in the first clause takes place is not relevant. The speaker believes truly believe that the result stated in the second clause will happen. The conjunction used in this case are almost always AKO / IF, but other conjuctions are used such as: UKOLIKO /IF, KAD/IF, SINCE, LI/IF.
Potential conditions are those which may or may not come to pass. The relevant point is that the speaker believes they could possibly come to pass. It is indicated by the presence of the potential mood in both sentences. The conjunctions used is always: AKO/If , KAD/If where to, or DA + present tense.
Unreal conditions are of two sorts. The first is of former potential condition that is used to be realizable at one point but is now no longer so, because the time frame for its potential fulfillment has run out. It is unreal in the sense that its completion is no longer possible. The second, by contrast, never had potential to become true. It is an imaginary, hypothetical condition which the speaker has constructed in order to make a rhetorical point. Conjunction used is: DA + past (formerly potential), DA + present (imaginary scenario).
Example of unreal sentences:
The regular compound future tense is composed of the auxiliary verb htjeti and the infinitive. Bosnian language also has the second future tense (futur II). Future II is composed of the auxiliary budem + participle. It is used in subordinate clauses after conjunction suggesting future completion of some action but we don’t know for sure if the action will happen (we assume its completion).
Future II ;
Futur II is usually used with KAD / When or AKO / If to express an idea of some action which will trigger another action. Meaning, when you do or complete something, then something else will happen. Kad + future II + Participle + remainder of the sentence. See examples;
Sentences with Ako / If are created by Ako + Future II + conj. verb in present tense or participle + remainder of the sentence;
In Bosnian language personal pronouns are (almost) always omitted and the order of the predicate noun or an adjective and verb to be is often reversed. The meaning of the sentence is not derived from the word order but rather from the individual words and from the grammatical case declensions that modify them.
The model of clitic placement:
|First significant unit||clitic||remainder of the sentence|
The clitic will always be placed in a second place regardless of what the meaning of the sentence is. The remainder of the sentence could be empty or occupied.
When sentence contains more than one clitic they must follow a strict order of placement where the particle li always precede the clitic. If we are trying to form a question we would use Da li + clitic + remainder of the sentence.
The first significant unit does not have to be only one word and can instead be a phrase of two or more words. The most used phrase placed in the first significant unit place consists of adjective + noun.
|First significant unit||Clitic||Remainder of sentence|
|Naši ljudi||su||po cijelom svijetu.|
If the adjective portion of and adj. + noun is a question word then that will be our first significant unit and we will move on to the remainder of the sentence.
|First signif, unit||Clitic||Remainder of sentence|
|Koji čovjek||je||tvoj muž?|