Misliti (imp) / To Think
In Bosnian there are three ways to express conditional sentences. If A happen then the B will happen or the speaker will state the condition and then he/she comments on his/her perception of the consequent result.
Real condition / conditional sentences
The real conditional sentence in Bosnian refers to the sentence that involves a real condition which creates prediction. The condition may not take a place but the speaker fully believes that the result stated in the result stated will ensure. Sentences in real conditional case are phrased in the present with an eye to the near future but they can also be stated in the past. Verbs can take any forms instead of exact future. With the ‘real’ condition sentences we will use conjunction ‘Ako/if, kad/when, li, ukoliko/if.’
Example of real conditional sentences:
In English, conditional sentences are easily recognizable. On contrary, Bosnian conditional sentences are not only distinguishable by the verb but also the choice of conjunction used. The real conditional sentences refer to a full expectation of completion of some action, potential refers to some possibility but there is uncertainty, and the third is referring to no real certainty that the result will happen – it is hypothetical. The conditional (abbreviation: cond.) is constructed like the past tense, but instead of säm, si, a ‘conditional’ verb is used; it’s a special verb with the following form + participle:
|1st per.||Ne bih||Ne bismo|
|2nd per.||Ne bi||Ne biste|
|3rd per.||Ne bi||Ne bi|
Example of conditional mood :
A sentence involving a real condition articulates a straightforwards casual connection, usually in the form of prediction. Whether the condition stated in the first clause takes place is not relevant. The speaker believes truly believe that the result stated in the second clause will happen. The conjunction used in this case are almost always AKO / IF, but other conjuctions are used such as: UKOLIKO /IF, KAD/IF, SINCE, LI/IF.
Potential conditions are those which may or may not come to pass. The relevant point is that the speaker believes they could possibly come to pass. It is indicated by the presence of the potential mood in both sentences. The conjunctions used is always: AKO/If , KAD/If where to, or DA + present tense.
Unreal conditions are of two sorts. The first is of former potential condition that is used to be realizable at one point but is now no longer so, because the time frame for its potential fulfillment has run out. It is unreal in the sense that its completion is no longer possible. The second, by contrast, never had potential to become true. It is an imaginary, hypothetical condition which the speaker has constructed in order to make a rhetorical point. Conjunction used is: DA + past (formerly potential), DA + present (imaginary scenario).
Example of unreal sentences:
Two of the most used prepositions in Bosnian language are ‘U’ (in) and ‘Na‘ (on, at). Nouns that describe closed and visualized places or as tangible three-dimensional space usually will take preposition ‘u.’ Nouns that describe a surface, event, or more abstract destination will take ‘na’ preposition. Nouns denoting cities and countries are ‘u‘ words and nouns denoting part of the city or islands are ‘na’ words.
Example prepositions U + iz pairs:
note: Don’t forget that U (in) has a pair Iz (from) and Na (at, on) is a pair with Sa (from).
Example of prepositions Na + Sa pair:
note: When we mention general part of the city we will say: ‘U dijelu grada’ but when we talk about specific part of the city then we must use preposition ‘na‘ ie. Na Grbavici, Na Koševu, Na Ilidži…itd.
When we talk about time duration we will use preposition ‘na.’