Nego or Nego što

We use Nego or Od when we want to compare something. Preposition OD will precedes Genitive Case where as Nego requires the same part of the speech which precedes it. If the object is a noun or a pronoun it will follow nego directly (the meaning of the sentence is the same regardless of using nego or od).

For example,

  1. On govori brže od nje. / He speaks faster than she does.
  2. On govori brže nego ona. / He speaks faster than she does.

If the object in a sentence is a verb or a phrase then we need to use Nego što.

For example,

  1. Ona piše brže nego što govori. / She speaks faster than she speaks.

Conditional in Bosnian

In Bosnian there are three ways to express conditional sentences. If A happen then the B will happen or the speaker will state the condition and then he/she comments on his/her perception of the consequent result.

Real condition / conditional sentences

The real conditional sentence in Bosnian refers to the sentence that involves a real condition which creates prediction. The condition may not take a place but the speaker fully believes that the result stated in the result stated will ensure. Sentences in real conditional case are phrased in the present with an eye to the near future but they can also be stated in the past. Verbs can take any forms instead of exact future. With the ‘real’ condition sentences we will use conjunction ‘Ako/if, kad/when, li, ukoliko/if.’

Example of real conditional sentences:

  • Ako bude padala kiša, onda nećemo ići. / If it rains then we won’t go.
  • Zovi me ako stigneš na vrijeme. / Call me if you arrive on time.
  • Ako si htjela putovati, zašto nisi rekla?

‘Future II’ Tense

The regular compound future tense is composed of the auxiliary verb htjeti and the infinitive. Bosnian language also has the second future tense (futur II). Future II is composed of the auxiliary budem + participle. It is used in subordinate clauses after conjunction suggesting future completion of some action but we don’t know for sure if the action will happen (we assume its completion).

 Future II ;

Budem Budemo
BudešBudete
BudeBudu

Futur II is usually used with KAD / When or AKO / If to express an idea of some action which will trigger another action. Meaning, when you do or complete something, then something else will happen. Kad + future II + Participle + remainder of the sentence. See examples;

  • Kad budem išao na more, povest ću i tebe sa sobom. / When I go to the sea (beach) I will take you with me.
  • Kad budeš imao zabavu, pozovi i mene. / When you have a party, invite me also.
  • Kad budu bili pametniji, bit će pozvani na zabavu. / When they become smarter, they will be invited to the party.

Sentences with Ako / If are created by Ako + Future II + conj. verb in present tense or participle + remainder of the sentence;

  • Ako budu pametni naučit će gradivo. / If they are (will be) smart they will learn the subject matter.
  • Donijet ću ti poklon ako budem išla na Havaje / I will bring you a gift if I go (end up going) to Hawaii.
  • Ako bude sreće, javit će mi se. / If there (will be) is luck, he/she will call me.

U + Na words

Two of the most used prepositions in Bosnian language are ‘U’ (in) and ‘Na‘ (on, at). Nouns that describe closed and visualized places or as tangible three-dimensional space usually will take preposition ‘u.’ Nouns that describe a surface, event, or more abstract destination will take ‘na’ preposition. Nouns denoting cities and countries are ‘u‘ words and nouns denoting part of the city or islands are ‘na’ words.

Example:

U’ words:

  • Živim u Americi. / I live in America.
  • Oni su u kući. / They are in the house.
  • Idemo u park. / We are going to the park.
  • Djeca su u školi. / Children are in the school.
  • Bili smo u Londonu. / We were in London.
  • Idemo u crkvu/ džamiju. / We are going to the church, mosque.
  • Bili smo u gradu. / We were in town.

Example prepositions U + iz pairs:

  • Bili smo u školi i sad se vraćamo iz škole. / We were in the school and now we are coming back from it.
  • Oni su u parku par sati i sad dolaze iz parka. / They were in the park for few hours and now they are arriving from the park.

note: Don’t forget that U (in) has a pair Iz (from) and Na (at, on) is a pair with Sa (from).

Na‘ words:

  • Idemo na čas. / We are going to our class. (abstract idea, gathering place)
  • Bili su na koncertu / They were at the concert. (gathering place).
  • Živimo na Skenderiji / We live on Skenderija. ( using ‘na’ because Skenderija is a part of the city, Sarajevo).
  • Na ljeto ćemo iči na more. / In summer we will go to the sea – beach. ( using ‘na’ because going to sea is an open area, abstract idea).
  • Idemo na ručak / We are going out to lunch.
  • Na kafu. / Out for coffee.
  • Idem na odmor na mjesec dana. / I am going to vacation and will stay there for a month.

Example of prepositions Na + Sa pair:

  • Davno su otišli na odmor i tek su se vratili sa odmora. / Long time ago they went to their vacation and they just came back from it.
  • Vozili smo se u krivom smjeru. Otišli smo na istok pa se sad vraćamo sa istoka. / We drove in a wrong direction. We went East and now we are coming back from (there) East.

note: When we mention general part of the city we will say: ‘U dijelu grada’ but when we talk about specific part of the city then we must use preposition ‘na‘ ie. Na Grbavici, Na Koševu, Na Ilidži…itd.

When we talk about time duration we will use preposition ‘na.’

  • Idem na odmor na par sedmica / I am going on vacation and will stay a few weeks.
  • Osuđen je na dvije godine zatvora. / He is sentenced to two years in prison.
  • Idemo u grad na par sati. / We are going out (in town) and we will stay there a few hours.

Words that end on -em, -ev, -ov

Words that end on soft consonant will have -em ending instead of regular –om ending.

Words that have ‘soft’ consonant ending usually end on one of these sounds:

  • c
  • č
  • ć
  • đ
  • j
  • lj
  • nj
  • š
  • ž
  • št and sometimes words that end on -e

Example:

  • sadržaj (content) – sadržajem
  • lice (face) – licem
  • cilj (goal) – ciljem
  • omogućavanje (enabling) – omogućavanjem
  • naš (ours) – našem
  • muškarac (a man) – muškarcem

Nouns that end on -ov or -ev

Masculine nouns with a monosyllabic stem usually add the syllable –ov before the plural ending. If the stem final consonant is soft (look for soft consonants above) then the added syllable is –ev. Also, nouns whose stem end on -e will shift to before adding sylable -ev. Sometimes it happens that the long syllable will shorten before adding -ev.

Examples:

Stem Nom. singularNom. pl.
stem -ovgradgradovi city, cities
mostmostovibridge, bridges
stem -evmužmuževihusband (s)
ključključevikey (s)
shift -e to čotacočevifather (s)