Passive voice

Participles are adjectives formed form verbal stems and they obey all rules of an adjective. The active participle is formed from a compound verbal tense or predicate in the sentence. The active participles are formed of verbs of both aspectual pairs where as passive participles use strictly perfective, transitive verbs.

Passive voice formation:

I. Suffixes (n, na, or no) are added to the verbs whose stems end on -a and their infinitive ends in -ati. Example:

PisatiPisan
PozvatiPozvan
DogovoritiDogovoren
ČestitatiČestitan
DokazatiDokazan

II. Suffixes (en, ena, eno) are added to the present tense of the -sti or -ći verbs or verbs that end on -iti which are preceeded by; ć,č,j, lj, nj, dž, đ, d, r, š,ž, and št. Example;

PojestiPojeden
PećiPečen
DogovoritiDogovoren
SjećiSječen
RiješitiRiješen

III. Suffixes (jen, jena, jeno) added to the present tense stem of the rest of the iti and jeti verbs. Example:

ObjavitiObjavljen
NositiNošen
ZaboravitiZaboravljen
SpasitiSpašen
ZabranitiZabranjen

IV. Suffixes (t, ta, to) added to the verbs whose infinitive stem ends on nu, e, long a or r. Example:

UzetiUzet
ProkletiProklet
SklonutiSklonut
UpoznatiUpoznat
SpomenutiSpomenut

V. Suffixes (ven, vena, veno) are added when creating past participle of a very small number of verbs that end on -i. Example:

SakritiSakriven
OtkritiOtkriven
DobitiDobiven, Dobijen
SašitiSašiven
PokritiPokriven

‘Future II’ Tense

The regular compound future tense is composed of the auxiliary verb htjeti and the infinitive. Bosnian language also has the second future tense (futur II). Future II is composed of the auxiliary budem + participle. It is used in subordinate clauses after conjunction suggesting future completion of some action but we don’t know for sure if the action will happen (we assume its completion).

 Future II ;

Budem Budemo
BudešBudete
BudeBudu

Futur II is usually used with KAD / When or AKO / If to express an idea of some action which will trigger another action. Meaning, when you do or complete something, then something else will happen. Kad + future II + Participle + remainder of the sentence. See examples;

  • Kad budem išao na more, povest ću i tebe sa sobom. / When I go to the sea (beach) I will take you with me.
  • Kad budeš imao zabavu, pozovi i mene. / When you have a party, invite me also.
  • Kad budu bili pametniji, bit će pozvani na zabavu. / When they become smarter, they will be invited to the party.

Sentences with Ako / If are created by Ako + Future II + conj. verb in present tense or participle + remainder of the sentence;

  • Ako budu pametni naučit će gradivo. / If they are (will be) smart they will learn the subject matter.
  • Donijet ću ti poklon ako budem išla na Havaje / I will bring you a gift if I go (end up going) to Hawaii.
  • Ako bude sreće, javit će mi se. / If there (will be) is luck, he/she will call me.